As of October 2018 tinctures are legal to purchase from licensed dispensaries. Highly potent concentrates (more than 30g of THC per ml) will be legalized in Canada and made available in 2019.
What are Concentrates?
Cannabis Concentrates are products made from the plant that have been processed to keep only the THC, CBD or terpenes. Plant matter and impurities are removed, which means that concentrates are highly potent. There are dozens of different forms of concentrates and for beginners, this can be especially daunting.
Shatter is processed through a chemical reaction of either butane or propane. Flower is run through the solvents to strip them of the THC trichomes and certain terpenes. When it is purged from the butane or propane, a thin waxy sheet of concentrated and potent THC is left. Shatter can be consumed by means of specialized vape pens or contraptions called dab rigs. Shatter is smoked at a very high heat to give you desired effects.
The distillation of cannabis is an involved process. Typically distilled with CO2, the plant matter is removed, and most of the terpenes are also removed. What you are left with is a highly potent THC oil or distillate. The process of distillation can produce up to a 99% pure THC distillate. That means for every gram of distillate, there is up to 990 mg of THC. These distillates can be diluted with terpenes and used in vaporizer pens, smoked as straight distillate in a device called a rig, or used in edibles and tinctures.
Keif is the byproduct of vigorously shaking cured cannabis through a strainer. What falls off the plant matter is the trichomes where THC and other cannabinoids are stored. Keif can be smoked inside a joint, or in a bowl.
Rosin is a solventless concentrate. The flower of a cannabis plant is processed using a mechanical process of heat and pressure. What oozes out of the press is called rosin. Live rosin is made by pressing fresh buds through the press, while rosin is made by pressing cured flower.
CBD Isolate starts out by processing CBD hemp plants through supercritical CO2. The hemp oil then undergoes a purifying process to filter out the plant material and any other waxes, leaving behind a crystalline product called CBD Isolate. CBD isolate is 99% pure CBD.