The whole cannabis plant contains many active medicinal compounds, the main compounds being CBD, THC and therapeutic terpenes.1 When these compounds are used in conjunction with one another they produce a synergistic effect in our bodies.1, 2 Full spectrum refers to products containing all cannabinoidsfound in the whole plant. By using a mixture of cannabinoids, we can be more effective at treating various ailments than using one of the compounds in isolation.
What is a CBD:THC Ratio?
Various ratios of CBD:THC allow control over which cannabinoid concentrations are being used and their synergy. Finding the most effective ratio can maximize the potential medicinal benefits of cannabinoids for certain ailments. Understanding how to find your ideal ratio can help achieve your desired results.
3:1 Ratio CBD:THC
Higher CBD Ratios such as 3:1 can help to minimize the psychoactive effects of THC while still providing all the medicinal benefits of CBD. Recent studies show this ratio of CBD can help combat inflammation-related ailments such as autoimmune disorders, gastrointestinal issues, arthritis and others, and may help provide some of the relief benefits of THC.1, 2, 3, 4
10:1 Ratio CBD:THC
CBD dominant ratios such as 10:1 offer no psychoactivity and may be the most effective at combating mood-related disorders due to is antipsychotic and mood-stabilizing properties. This ratio may be ideal for curbing high anxiety, , or PTSD.5, 6
What are Terpenes?
Terpenes are non-psychoactive aromatic hydrocarbons found in almost all plants across the plant kingdom, they are responsible for the varying aromas of different cannabis strains. Terpenesare the pharmacological base for aromatherapy, as they are known for their natural therapeutic effects and can serve numerous biological functions.1
This terpene has a sweet citrus-y and refreshing aroma, similar to that of lime or lemons (yielding the name Limonene). Limonene possesses anxiolytic properties which can help improve anxiety and , as well as antibacterial, antifungal and antiproliferative properties which may reduce  cell growth. It can also improve symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux such as heartburn. This terpene works synergistically when combined with CBD, to provide more effective relief from ailments such as anxiety, , PTSD or other mood-related disorders.1
One of the most abundant terpenes found in the whole-cannabis plant, it is famous for its earthy and spice-y aromas. Myrcene is most well known for its sedative effects, which is typical to indica strains of cannabis and may assist with sleep-disorders. This terpene can also encourage analgesic and muscle relaxant responses, providing relief from  pain and inflammation.1, 2, 3, 4 When combined with CBD, research indicates Myrcene shows potential to suppress excessive cell-growth and reduce the size of tumors.1, 3
Alpha-pinene is the most common naturally occurring terpenein the world, it is responsible for the refreshing aroma of the pine tree (yielding the name pinene). This terpene possesses anti-inflammatory and broncho-dilating properties potentially helpful for asthmatics, which can be increasingly effective when alpha-pinene is combined with THC. Alpha-pinene can also promote alertness, focus and memory retention, which can help combat the anxious effects sometimes caused by THC on its own, as well as mood disorders.1, 3, 6
Baron, E. P. (2018). Medicinal Properties of Cannabinoids, Terpenes, and Flavonoids in Cannabis and Benefits in Migraine, , and Pain: An Update on Current Evidence and Cannabis Science.  Currents, 58, 1139-1186.
Russo, E. B. (2011). Taming THC: Potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. British Journal of Pharmacology, 163, 1344-1364.
Johnson JR, Burnell-Nugent M, Lossignol D, Ganae-Motan ED, Potts R, Fallon MT. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable -related pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2010;39(2):167‐179
Bellnier, T., Brown, G. W., & Ortega, T. R. (2018). Preliminary evaluation of the efficacy, safety, and costs associated with the treatment of  pain with medical cannabis. The Mental Health Clinician, 8, 110-115.
Smith, P. A., Chan, S., Blake, A., Wolt, A., Zhang, L., Wan, B. A., … O’Hearn, S. (2017). Medical cannabis use in military and police veterans diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Journal of Pain Management, 10, 397-405. Retrieved from
Bergamaschi, M. M., Queiroz, R. H., Chagas, M. H., de Oliveira, D. C., De Martinis, B. S., Kapczinski, F., … Crippa, J. A. (2011). Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36, 1219-1226.